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IAT 804, Foundations of Research Design for Human-Centred Design of Interactive Technologies, is a graduate course taught in the School of Interactive Art and Technology at Simon Fraser University in Surrey, BC, Canada. This course provides an introduction to different epistemological worldviews, research approaches and methodological traditions of inquiry that are used to conduct research within SIAT. Students are introduced to a range of ways of knowing and inquiring in human-centred design, development and analysis of interactive technologies including scientific, social science, humanities, design and art-based approaches.

Fall 2017
Course Instructor: Dr. Carman Neustaedter
Teaching Assistant: Alexandra Kitson

The following calendar is subject to change.

Week Lecture / Seminar / Activities Readings Projects Due
Sept 7, Week 1:
Introduction

We will go over the course outline, web syllabus, texts/readings, expectations about preparation and workload, assessment, academic honesty policy. (Slides PDF)

We will talk about research approaches as a combination of worldview, research designs and methodologies.

Key terms: paradigm (worldview), epistemology, ontology, axiology, rhetoric, methodology, research design, and measuring humans, concepts, constructs and variables.

Over the course of the term, you should learn what all of the words in this Terminology Document mean. You should add definitions/descriptions to each term as the course progresses.

Creswell, J.W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (2013, 4th edition)
  • Chapter 1 - The Selection of a Research Design (20 pages)

Optional:

Steve Harrison, Phoebe Sengers, and Deborah Tatar. 2011. Making epistemological trouble: Third-paradigm HCI as successor science. Interact. Comput. 23, 5 (September 2011), 385-392. DOI=10.1016/j.intcom.2011.03.005

Sept 14, Week 2:
Strategies of Inquiry I

We will explore how to write a research question from different perspectives, including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches.

We will cover an overview of quantitative methods with some details on the scientific method. These details are elaborated on in subsequent weeks when we cover controlled experiments.

Research Ethics
Special guest presentation from SFU's Research Ethics Board, Dr. Dina Shafey (10:30am for 60-90 minutes).

The Government of Canada TCPS 2 online tutorial on research ethics is to be done outside of class time.

Creswell, J.W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (2013, 4th edition)
  • Chapter 7 - Research Questions and Hypotheses (24 pages)
  • Chapter 8 - Quantitative Methods (26 pages)
Sept 21, Week 3:
Strategies of Inquiry II

We will work more on how to write a research question, adding to the types of questions we can ask from a quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods approach.

We will cover an overview of qualitative and mixed-methods methodologies. These details are elaborated on in subsequent weeks when we cover observational studies, interviews, qualitative surveys, and design ethnography.

Writing a Research Question:

  • individually, identify a structure/phenomena, people, activity, technology, context, factor (IV), construct (DV)
  • write a research question on the board
  • have partner critique it
  • decide how would you answer the research question, what data would you collect, method, etc.
Creswell, J.W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (2013, 4th edition)
  • Chapter 9 - Qualitative Methods (30 pages)
  • Chapter 10 - Mixed Methods (23 pages)
Sept 28, Week 4:
Three Lenses for Research at SIAT

We will explore an overview of three main ways that research occurs at SIAT, including:

  • effective - experimental
  • experience - observational
  • creation - artifact/design-based approaches

For each approach, we will articulate and analyze:

  • general practices
  • the epistemological commitments
  • areas of use
  • strengths of the approach
  • weaknesses of the approach

Uses of Theory We will explore the ways that theory can be used as a part of research. (Creswell Research Design - Ch 3)

Group Activity We will split into small groups to discuss the papers for your Short Paper assignment. You need to have read one of these papers BEFORE class.

Example papers used for exploring research methodologies and methods: Video Chat by Teenagers and MyEyes. The Rubber Hand Illusion video is here.

Dix, A., Finlay, J., Abowd, G., Beale, R. Human-Computer Interaction, Third Edition. Prentice Hall, 2004.

Creswell, J.W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (2013, 4th edition)

  • Chapter 3 - The Use of Theory (25 pages)

Read one of the papers for your Short Paper assignment. You should choose the tradition that you know the least about.

TCPS 2 Ethics Tutorial is due. Show your ethics certificate in class.

Submit the Ethics assignment in class.

Oct 5, Week 5:
Effective: Experiments

We will cover the scientific method, hypothesis generation, controls, independent variables, dependent variables, etc. We will talk about between and within subject designs, recruitment and sampling procedures, validity threats (internal, external), descriptive statistics, and basic inferential statistics.

We will demo how to run statistical testing in SPSS or JMP. In-class Demo Resources

Martin, “Doing Psychology Experiments” (Wadsworth, 2004)

  • Chapter 2 - How to Do Experiments (17 pages) (this chapter is similar to Creswell's chapters on quantitative methods)
  • Chapter 7 - How to Decide Which Variables to Manipulate and Measure (17 pages)
  • Chapter 8 - How to Decide on a Between-Subjects versus Within Subject Design (22 pages)
Submit your Short Paper assignment.
Oct 12, Week 6:
Experience: Observation

We will explore observational techniques and ethnography. This includes ethnography from a design perspective building on a mixture of sociological and anthropological traditions. We will cover immersion, culture, social beliefs, and how to collect data on culture through what people say, do, and make/use. We will discuss realist ethnography and critical ethnography as two possible types of ethnography. We will discuss the challenges with conducting ethnography and ways to write up ethnographic records/reports.

We will explore observational studies in a laboratory setting where participants use a prototype or design as a part of tasks or situations. This will involve methods to capture data such as logged data, observational data, think-aloud data, etc. We will talk about the challenges in conducting lab-based observational studies and how to work around them.

Creswell, “Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches” (SAGE Publication, 3rd edition, 2013).

  • Chapter 4 - Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry
  • Chapter 5 - Five Different Qualitative Studies
  • Chapter 9 - Writing a Qualitative Study

(for the above chapters, just read sections about Ethnographic studies)

Howell, Signe, Two or Three Things I Love About Ethnography, Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 7(1), 15-20. (6 pages) (.pdf)

Evans, A., & Rooney, B. “Methods in Psychological Research” (Sage Publications, 2013)

Rubin, J., and Chisnell, D. Handbook of Usability Testing, Wiley Publishing, 2008

(this chapters cover observations in a lab setting; it is focused on a usability study, but the process is applicable to testing out observing the use of system designs as part of research)

Oct 19, Week 7:
Creation: Art/Artifact/Design-Based Approaches

We will cover research practices that occur through the making of art or an artifact where the learning comes through the making process as well as the setup and self-usage of the technology. In many cases, this type of research does not have user research studies as a part of it. We will explore ideas around sketching, design portfolios, brainstorming, research through design, design scenarios, speculative design, and video prototyping. We will talk about artistic research vs. artistic practice, research into art, research through art, and research for art.

Examples of art-based research:

Ilpo Koskinen, John Zimmerman, Thomas Binder, Johan Redstrom, and Stephan Wensveen. Constructive Design Research-1. (2012). In Design Research Through Practice (pp. 1-13). Available online at the SFU Library

Daniel Fallman. 2003. Design-oriented human-computer interaction. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '03). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 225-232. DOI=http://dx.doi.org.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/10.1145/642611.642652

Frayling, C. (1993). Research in art and design. Royal Coll. of Art, London (United Kingdom). (.pdf)

Borgdorff, H. Chapter 3: The Production of Knowledge in Artistic Research, in Biggs, M., & Karlsson, H. (Eds.). (2010). The Routledge companion to research in the arts. Routledge. (.pdf)

Optional:

Arne Eigenfeldt, Miles Thorogood, Jim Bizzocchi, Philippe Pasquier, MediaScape: Towards a Video Music, and Sound Metacreation, Journal of Science and Technology of the Arts - CITARJ, 6, 61-73, 2014 (.pdf)

Methodological Traditions assignment for Effective is due in class.
Oct 26, Week 8:
Query Methods: Interviews and Surveys

We will explore query methods such as surveys, interviews, and questionnaires, using both qualitative and quantitative data collection. We will discuss the role of surveys, typical length of surveys, types of questions, and analysis procedures. We will then explore the role of interviews and varying types of interviews including open-ended, closed-ended, and semi-structured. We will talk about ways to get detailed interview responses and analysis procedures.

Schensul, S., Schensul, J., and LeCompte, M. Chapter 7: Semistructured Interviewing, Essential Ethnographic Methods: Observations, Interviews, and Questionnaires, Altamira Press (1999).

Weiss, R. Learning From Strangers: The Art and Method of Qualitative Interview Studies, The Free Press (1994).

Olson, J. and Kellogg, W. Ways of Knowing in HCI, Springer, 2014.

  • Chapter 10 - Survey Research in HCI (available online at SFU library) (38 pages)

Optional:

Weiss, R. Learning From Strangers: The Art and Method of Qualitative Interview Studies, The Free Press (1994).

Evans, A., & Rooney, B. “Methods in Psychological Research” (Sage Publications, 2013)

Nov 2, Week 9:
Grounded Theory

We will cover an overview of Grounded Theory looking at the use of literature and theory, participant recruitment and sampling, analysis procedures through open, axial, and selective coding, and writing up a Grounded Theory study. We will also talk about the different theoretical perspectives on Grounded Theory.

Case Studies
We will cover an overview of single and multiple case studies, within-site and multi-site, intrinsic case, instrumental case, and collective case. We will explore both holistic and embedded analysis, study write-up, and the challenges with case studies.

Final paper
We will discuss your final paper assignment and talk about structures and examples.

Creswell, “Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches” (SAGE Publication, 3rd edition, 2013).

  • Chapter 4 - Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry
  • Chapter 5 - Five Different Qualitative Studies
  • Chapter 9 - Writing a Qualitative Study
  • Chapter 10 - Standards of Validation and Evaluation

In the above chapters, just read the sections on Grounded Theory and Case Studies

Methodological Traditions assignment for Experience is due in class.
Nov 9, Week 10:
Historical, Biographical and Narrative Approaches

We will cover biographical accounts, autoethnography, life histories, and oral histories. We will detail ways to write-up narrative studies focused on one or more individuals historical accounts and the challenges in conducting narrative studies.

Phenomenology
We will cover the focal points of a phenomenological study, the philosophical underpinnings of the approach, epoche, hermeneutical phenomenology, transcendental phenomenology, and horizontalization as an analysis procedure. We will also explore the challenges with phenomenology and how to write-up phenomenological studies.

Creswell, “Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches” (SAGE Publication, 3rd edition, 2013).

  • Chapter 4 - Five Qualitative Approaches to Inquiry
  • Chapter 5 - Five Different Qualitative Studies
  • Chapter 9 - Writing a Qualitative Study
  • Chapter 10 - Standards of Validation and Evaluation

In the above chapters, just read the sections on Narrative Research and Phenomenology

Nov 16, Week 11:
Workshop for Assignment 4

We will do in-class activities as part of Assignment 4.

Methodological Traditions assignment for Creation is due in class.

Submit your own presentation as part of the Workshop Critique assignment

Nov 23, Week 12:
Presentations for Assignment 4 Submit your group's presentation as part of the Workshop Critique assignment
Nov 30, Week 13:
Workshop for Final Paper:

We will conduct in-class activities to critique and prepare final papers.

You need to come to class with a full draft of your final paper.

Peer review critique is due by 11:59pm, Sunday, Dec 3rd.

Final paper is due by 11:59pm, Sunday, Dec 10th.